Journal entries for inventory transactions

When we post this adjusting journal entry, you can see the ending inventory balance matches the physical inventory count and cost of good sold has been increased. For a merchandising company, Merchandise Inventory falls under the prepaid expense category since we purchase inventory in advance of using (selling) it. We record it as an asset (merchandise inventory) and record an expense (cost of goods sold) as it is used.

  • An asset is physical or non-physical property that adds value to your business.
  • In addition, journal entries are updated to reconcile changes in current inventory compared to what is left over from the previous year.
  • This approach charges the cost of obsolescence to expense in small increments over a long period of time, rather than in large amounts only when obsolete inventory is discovered.

For example, a customer cancelled his order, but there was a sales receipt made for his order that never got canceled (customer never got charged/billed either). An interesting point about inventory journal entries is that they are rarely intended to be reversing entries (that is, which automatically reverse themselves in the next accounting period). An inventory journal entry is a type of accounting entry that is used to record transactions related to a company’s inventory. Many portions of the adjustment process can be automated with smart inventory management software. The software can automatically match inventory counts, apply adjustments, and provide updated reports, saving time and eliminating manual errors.

Inventory Valuation And Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

Those wonderful adjusting entries we learned in previous sections still apply. Inventory adjustments are usually part operating cash flow formula of the company’s closing entry process. When adjusting entries are needed, two separate entries must be made.

  • But it is important to attribute these expenses to COGS calculations, to accurately reflect income.
  • Then you are expensing the full amount of the purchase and there will not be an inventory asset value on the balance sheet.And since you are expensing the purchase, there is nothing to adjust either.
  • She has been writing on business-related topics for nearly 10 years.
  • We know this area is a maze for business owners, that’s why we want you to have this inventory accounting guide.

To calculate the ending inventory, we need to assume that the most recent inventory items purchased are still on hand, and the oldest items have been sold. Therefore, the ending inventory will consist of the cost of the oldest items in stock. Positive changes in inventory may occur due to the production of more goods or excess goods that did not get sold in the previous accounting cycle. Negative changes in inventory could occur due to stock loss, breakage, waste, internal use, or write-offs.

Reasons for Inventory Adjustments

If you experience a change in your inventory that isn’t related to buying or selling goods, you will need to adjust inventory in QuickBooks. This article will give you a quick overview of making QuickBooks inventory adjustment without creating accounting errors. Inventory adjustments are important as they let companies track changes not recorded officially while keeping in line with legal accounting rules. Accruals are revenues and expenses that have not been received or paid, respectively, and have not yet been recorded through a standard accounting transaction.

Adjusting Journal Entries and Accrual Accounting

It is important to calculate COGS monthly if you have a high turnover. The balance of your inventory is figured into your monthly close so that at the end of the year you can properly file taxes on leftover inventory, held as assets, as well as total COGS expenses to income. TranZact is a team of IIT & IIM graduates who have developed a GST compliant, cloud-based, inventory management software for SME manufacturers. It digitizes your entire business operations, right from customer inquiry to dispatch. This also streamlines your Inventory, Purchase, Sales & Quotation management processes in a hassle-free user-friendly manner.


Deferrals refer to revenues and expenses that have been received or paid in advance, respectively, and have been recorded, but have not yet been earned or used. Unearned revenue, for instance, accounts for money received for goods not yet delivered. In summary, adjusting journal entries are most commonly accruals, deferrals, and estimates. Inventory is an asset for a firm, and it must be correctly valued to comply with generally accepted accounting principles. An item may be written off on purpose, as when managers take stock from the shelves to use for display purposes.

At the end of the period, the general ledger is likely to show an increase or decrease. If this amount decreases to $45,000, a debit entry is made to the inventory account for $5,000. A perpetual inventory uses a computerized sales and inventory tracking system to record each transaction or loss and make the appropriate journal entries automatically.

When the firm’s income statement and balance sheet are prepared using the adjusted accounts, the new totals report the value of inventory owned. By following these steps, you can create an accurate inventory journal entry to reflect the transaction and maintain accurate accounting records. On the rare occasion when the physical inventory count is more than the unadjusted inventory balance, we increase (debit) inventory and decrease (credit) cost of goods sold for the difference. We learned how the accounting cycle applies to a service company but guess what? We spent the last section discussing the journal entries for sales and purchase transactions. Now we will look how the remaining steps are used in a merchandising company.